Goldenbeld's Four Dilemmas

In a 2002 paper Charles Goldenbeld, transport researcher, proposes four dilemmas that arise from the introduction of safety countermeasure technologies. These dilemmas are the core of a research report on the acceptance of speed cameras in the UK, US and Australia. link

Goldenbeld's dilemmas are:

Credibility dilemma: encompasses concerns about the purposes of the countermeasure and the interests in which it is pursued.

Legitimacy dilemma: refers to the fairness of the countermeasure

Implementation dilemma: occurs where the acceptance of a measure is hampered because difficulties associated with implementation are not compensated for

Social dilemma: occurs where there is a mismatch between individual preference and collective interests

With minor adaptation these dilemmas are a useful frame for thinking about the history of teaching machines.